Acetonitrile, also known as methyl cyanide, is a colorless liquid that is highly volatile. It has a special odor similar to ether. It has excellent solvent properties and can dissolve a variety of organic, inorganic and gaseous substances. It has certain toxicity and is infinitely miscible with water and alcohol. Acetonitrile is a major organic intermediate that can undergo typical nitrile reactions and is used to prepare many typical nitrogen-containing compounds. Acetonitrile can be used to synthesize vitamin A, cortisone, solvents for carbonamines and their intermediates, as well as active medium solvents for the manufacture of vitamin B1 and amino acids. Can replace chlorinated solvents. It is also used in vinyl coatings, as an extractant for fatty acids, alcohol denaturants, butadiene extractants and acrylonitrile synthetic fibers. It is also used in fabric dyeing, lighting, perfume manufacturing and photographic material manufacturing.
Colorless transparent liquid
UN 1993 3/PG 3
Cool,dry and hermetic place
1.Pharmaceutical industry use
A solvent used in the petroleum industry to remove tar, phenol, etc. from petroleum hydrocarbons. It is used as a solvent for extracting fatty acids from animal and vegetable oils in the oil and fat industry and as a reaction medium for recrystallization of steroids in medicine. A binary azeotrope of acetonitrile with water is often used in polar solvents where high dielectric constant is required: 84% acetonitrile and 76 ° C boiling point. Acetonitrile is a medicine (vitamin B1), an intermediate for perfumes, and a raw material for the manufacture of a triazine nitrogen fertilizer synergist. Also used as a denaturant for alcohol. In addition, it can also be used to synthesize ethylamine, acetic acid, etc., and has many uses in the fabric dyeing and lighting industries.
Acetonitrile is a commonly used polar aprotic solvent. In inorganic chemistry, acetonitrile is widely used as a ligand, and its abbreviation is MeCN. For example, the acetonitrile complex PdCl2(MeCN)2 can be prepared by heating a suspension of palladium chloride in acetonitrile.
Acetonitrile is a popular cyclic voltammetric solvent due to its high dielectric constant. Acetonitrile is also a two-carbon raw material for organic synthesis. It reacts with cyanogen chloride to give malononitrile. Acetonitrile is also used as a mobile phase separation molecule and is commonly used in column chromatography and more modern high performance liquid chromatography.
In the field of nuclear medicine, acetonitrile is used to synthesize positron-based radiopharmaceuticals such as fluorodeoxyglucose. In the process of synthesizing FDG, the evaporation of acetonitrile can take away the water in the reaction system; the amount of acetonitrile in the reaction system has a significant impact on the synthesis efficiency and drug quality of FDG; at the same time, acetonitrile also acts as a solvent and reaction. The matrix of the system.